Antihistamine (Oral Route, Parenteral Route, Rectal Route) Proper Use (2023)

Proper Use

Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex

For patients taking this medicine by mouth:

  • Antihistamines can be taken with food or a glass of water or milk to lessen stomach irritation if necessary.
  • If you are taking the extended-release tablet form of this medicine, swallow the tablets whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.

For patients taking dimenhydrinate or diphenhydramine for motion sickness:

  • Take this medicine at least 30 minutes or, even better, 1 to 2 hours before you begin to travel.

For patients using the suppository form of this medicine:

(Video) Oral Route of Administration

  • To insert suppository: First remove the foil wrapper and moisten the suppository with cold water. Lie down on your side and use your finger to push the suppository well up into the rectum. If the suppository is too soft to insert, chill the suppository in the refrigerator for 30 minutes or run cold water over it before removing the foil wrapper.

For patients using the injection form of this medicine:

  • If you will be giving yourself the injection, make sure you understand exactly how to give it. If you have any questions about this, check with your health care professional.

Antihistamines are used to relieve or prevent the symptoms of your medical problem. Take them only as directed. Do not take more of them and do not take them more often than recommended on the label, unless otherwise directed by your doctor. To do so may increase the chance of side effects.

Dosing

The dose medicines in this class will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of these medicines. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

(Video) Methods of Drug Administration

For use as an antihistamine:

For azatadine

  • For oral dosage form (tablets):
    • Adults—1 to 2 milligrams (mg) every eight to twelve hours as needed.
    • Children 12 years of age and older—0.5 mg to 1 mg two times a day as needed.
    • Children 4 to 12 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For brompheniramine

  • For regular (short-acting) oral dosage forms (capsules, tablets, or liquid):
    • Adults and teenagers—4 milligrams (mg) every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 6 to 12 years of age—2 mg every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—1 mg every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For injection dosage form:
    • Adults and teenagers—10 milligrams (mg) injected into a muscle, under the skin, or into a vein every eight to twelve hours.
    • Children 4 to 12 years of age—0.125 mg per kilogram (0.06 mg per pound) of body weight injected into a muscle, under the skin, or into a vein three or four times a day as needed.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For cetirizine

  • For oral dosage forms (syrup and tablets):
    • Adults—5 to 10 milligrams (mg) once a day.
    • Children 6 years of age and older—5 to 10 mg once a day.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—2.5 mg once a day, up to a maximum of 5 mg once a day or 2.5 mg twice a day.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For chlorpheniramine

  • For regular (short-acting) oral dosage forms (tablets or liquid):
    • Adults and teenagers—4 milligrams (mg) every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 6 to 12 years of age—2 mg three or four times a day as needed.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For long-acting oral dosage forms (capsules or tablets):
    • Adults—8 or 12 milligrams (mg) every eight to twelve hours as needed.
    • Children 12 years of age and older—8 mg every twelve hours as needed.
    • Children 4 to 12 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For injection dosage form:
    • Adults—5 to 40 milligrams (mg) injected into a muscle, into a vein, or under the skin.
    • Children 4 years of age and older—0.0875 mg per kilogram (0.04 mg per pound) of body weight injected under the skin every six hours as needed.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For clemastine

  • For oral dosage forms (tablets or liquid):
    • Adults and teenagers—1.34 milligrams (mg) two times a day or 2.68 mg one to three times a day as needed.
    • Children 6 to 12 years of age—0.67 to 1.34 mg two times a day.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For cyproheptadine

  • For oral dosage forms (tablets or liquid):
    • Adults and children 14 years of age and older—4 milligrams (mg) every eight hours. The doctor may increase the dose if needed.
    • Children 6 to 14 years of age—4 mg every eight to twelve hours as needed
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—2 mg every eight to twelve hours as needed
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For desloratadine

  • For oral dosage form (tablets):
    • Adults and children 12 years of age and older—5 milligrams (mg) once a day.
    • Children 4 to 12 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For dexchlorpheniramine

  • For regular (short-acting) oral dosage form (tablets or liquid):
    • Adults and teenagers—2 milligrams (mg) every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 5 to 12 years of age—1 mg every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 4 to 5 years of age—0.5 mg every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For long-acting oral dosage form (tablets):
    • Adults—4 or 6 milligrams (mg) every eight to twelve hours as needed.
    • Children 4 years of age and older—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For diphenhydramine

  • For oral dosage forms (capsules, tablets, or liquid):
    • Adults and teenagers—25 to 50 milligrams (mg) every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 6 to 12 years of age—12.5 to 25 mg every four to six hours.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—6.25 to 12.5 mg every four to six hours.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For injection dosage form:
    • Adults—10 to 50 milligrams (mg) injected into a muscle or into a vein.
    • Children 4 years of age and older—1.25 mg per kg (0.6 mg per pound) of body weight injected into a muscle four times a day.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For doxylamine

  • For oral dosage form (tablets):
    • Adults and teenagers—12.5 to 25 milligrams (mg) every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 6 to 12 years of age—6.25 to 12.5 mg every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For fexofenadine

  • For oral dosage form (capsules):
    • Adults and teenagers—60 milligrams (mg) two times a day as needed or 180 mg once a day.
    • Children 6 to 11 years of age—30 mg twice a day as needed.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For loratadine

  • For oral dosage forms (tablets or liquid):
    • Adults and children 6 years of age and older—10 milligrams (mg) once a day.
    • Children 4 to 5 years of age—5 mg once a day.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For phenindamine

  • For oral dosage form (tablets):
    • Adults and teenagers—25 milligrams (mg) every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 6 to 12 years of age—12.5 mg every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For nausea, vomiting, and vertigo (only dimenhydrinate and diphenhydramine are used for vertigo):

For dimenhydrinate

  • For regular (short-acting) oral dosage forms (tablets or liquid):
    • Adults and teenagers—50 to 100 milligrams (mg) every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 6 to 12 years of age—25 to 50 mg every six to eight hours as needed.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—12.5 to 25 mg every six to eight hours as needed.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For long-acting oral dosage forms (capsules):
    • Adults—1 capsule (contains 25 milligrams [mg] for immediate action and 50 mg for long action) every twelve hours.
    • Children 4 years of age and older—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For injection dosage form:
    • Adults—50 milligrams (mg) injected into a muscle or into a vein every four hours as needed.
    • Children 2 years of age and older—1.25 mg per kg (0.6 mg per pound) of body weight injected into a muscle or into a vein every six hours as needed.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For suppository dosage form:
    • Adults—50 to 100 milligrams (mg) inserted into the rectum every six to eight hours as needed.
    • Children 12 years of age and older—50 mg inserted into the rectum every eight to twelve hours as needed.
    • Children 8 to 12 years of age—25 to 50 mg inserted into the rectum every eight to twelve hours as needed.
    • Children 6 to 8 years of age—12.5 to 25 mg inserted into the rectum every eight to twelve hours as needed.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For diphenhydramine

  • For oral dosage forms (capsules, tablets, or liquid):
    • Adults—25 to 50 milligrams (mg) every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 4 years of age and older—1 to 1.5 mg per kg (0.45 to 0.7 mg per pound) of body weight every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For injection dosage form:
    • Adults—10 milligrams (mg) injected into a muscle or into a vein. Dose may be increased to 25 to 50 mg every two to three hours.
    • Children 4 years of age and older—1 to 1.5 mg per kg (0.45 to 0.68 mg per pound) of body weight injected into a muscle every six hours.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For hydroxyzine

  • For oral dosage forms (capsules, tablets, or liquid):
    • Adults—25 to 100 milligrams (mg) three or four times a day as needed.
    • Children 6 years of age and older—12.5 to 25 mg every six hours as needed.
    • Children 4 to 6 years of age—12.5 mg every six hours as needed.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For injection dosage form:
    • Adults—25 to 100 milligrams (mg) injected into a muscle.
    • Children 4 years of age and older—1 mg per kg (0.45 mg per pound) of body weight injected into a muscle.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For Parkinson's disease:

For diphenhydramine

  • For oral dosage forms (capsules, tablets, or liquid):
    • Adults—25 milligrams (mg) three times a day when starting treatment. Your doctor may increase the dose gradually later if needed.
  • For injection dosage form:
    • Adults—10 to 50 milligrams (mg) injected into a muscle or into a vein.
    • Children—1.25 mg per kg (0.6 mg per pound) of body weight four times a day injected into a muscle.

For use as a sedative (to help sleep):

(Video) Medication Routes of Administration and Medical Abbreviations | Nursing NCLEX Review

For diphenhydramine

  • For oral dosage forms (capsules, tablets, or liquid):
    • Adults—50 milligrams (mg) twenty to thirty minutes before bedtime if needed.

For doxylamine

  • For oral dosage form (tablets):
    • Adults—25 milligrams (mg) thirty minutes before bedtime if needed.
    • Children 4 years of age and older—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

For hydroxyzine

  • For oral dosage forms (capsules, tablets, or liquid):
    • Adults—50 to 100 milligrams (mg).
    • Children 4 years of age and older—0.6 mg per kg (0.3 mg per pound) of body weight.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For injection dosage form:
    • Adults—50 milligrams (mg) injected into a muscle.

For anxiety:

For hydroxyzine

  • For oral dosage forms (capsules, tablets, or liquid):
    • Adults—50 to 100 milligrams (mg).
    • Children 4 years of age and older—0.6 mg per kg (0.3 mg per pound) of body weight.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .
  • For injection dosage form:
    • Adults—50 to 100 milligrams (mg) injected into a muscle every four to six hours as needed.
    • Children 4 years of age and older—1 mg per kilogram (0.45 mg per pound) of body weight injected into a muscle.
    • Children and infants up to 4 years of age—Use is not recommended .

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

(Video) ORAL ROUTE OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION: ONLINE CLASS CONTINUATION

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

  • Before Using
  • Precautions

Portions of this document last updated: Nov. 01, 2022

Copyright © 2022 IBM Watson Health. All rights reserved. Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes.

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(Video) Pharmacy | Pharmaokinetics of Rectal Administration

FAQs

What is the use of antihistamine? ›

Antihistamines are medicines often used to relieve symptoms of allergies, such as hay fever, hives, conjunctivitis and reactions to insect bites or stings. They're also sometimes used to prevent motion sickness and as a short-term treatment for insomnia.

How do you administer antihistamines? ›

Antihistamines can be taken with food or a glass of water or milk to lessen stomach irritation if necessary. If you are taking the extended-release tablet form of this medicine, swallow the tablets whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.

What is an oral antihistamine? ›

Oral antihistamines are medications that many people use for seasonal allergies, hives (urticaria), the common cold, and motion sickness. Antihistamines work by blocking the action of histamine, a natural chemical in your body that drives allergy symptoms.

Which medications are antihistamines? ›

List of Antihistamines
  • azelastine (ASTELIN, ASTEPRO nasal sprays)
  • brompheniramine (DIMETAPP) cetirizine (ALLERTEC, ZYRTEC, ZYRTEC-D)
  • chlorpheniramine (CHLOR-TRIMETON, TRIAMINIC)
  • desloratadine (CLARINEX)
  • diphenhydramine (BENADRYL, DIPHEDRYL)

What are antihistamines give example? ›

Antihistamines are a class of drugs commonly used to treat symptoms of allergies.
...
A few examples of second-generation over-the-counter and prescription H-1 blockers include:
  • Azelastine (Astelin®).
  • Loratadine (Claritin®).
  • Cetirizine (Zyrtec®).
  • Desloratadine (Clarinex®).
  • Fexofenadine (Allegra®).
13 Jul 2020

Can you use oral antihistamines? ›

Antihistamines target histamine, which your body makes during an allergic reaction. You can take them as pills, nasal spray, or eye drops. The pills target itching, sneezing, and runny nose.

When should antihistamines be taken? ›

Depending on your symptoms, you can take antihistamines: Every day, to help keep daily symptoms under control. Only when you have symptoms. Before being exposed to things that often cause your allergy symptoms, such as a pet or certain plants.

How fast do oral antihistamines work? ›

antihistamine tablets usually start to work within 30 minutes and are likely to be most effective within 1 to 2 hours. For allergies such as hay fever, antihistamines are more effective when taken regularly as a prevention, before symptoms occur, rather than only when you have symptoms.

What is the best oral antihistamine? ›

Best Overall: Allegra Adult Non-Drowsy Antihistamine Tablets

If your eyes are starting to itch or your nose is running, the antihistamine in the Allegra Adult 24-Hour Allergy Relief can help make you feel better in as little as one hour.

What are Type 2 antihistamines? ›

Second-generation antihistamines are a type of antihistamines that are used for treating allergies and itching. They work by binding to the histamine receptors in the brain and spinal cord and blocking the release of histamine.

Is antihistamine good for cough? ›

Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine used to relieve symptoms of allergy, hay fever, and the common cold. These symptoms include rash, itching, watery eyes, itchy eyes/nose/throat, cough, runny nose, and sneezing. It is also used to prevent and treat nausea, vomiting and dizziness caused by motion sickness.

Is antihistamine a drug class? ›

Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: H-1 receptors and H-2 receptors. Antihistamine drugs that bind to H-1 receptors are generally used to treat allergies and allergic rhinitis.

What is another name for antihistamine? ›

First Generation (Sedating) Antihistamines
Generic nameBrand nameDuration of action
clemastineTavist Allergy12h
diphenhydramineBenadryl12h
hydroxyzineAtarax, Vistaril24h
triprolidineTripohist12h
3 more rows
27 Sept 2022

What is the meaning of histamines? ›

(HIS-tuh-meen) A substance that has many effects in the body. It is released from some types of white blood cells during allergic reactions. It causes small blood vessels to dilate (widen) and become leaky, which can cause tissues to swell.

What are the safest antihistamines? ›

Loratadine, cetrizine, and fexofenadine all have excellent safety records.

How long can you take antihistamines? ›

Yes, most people can take antihistamines every day, if they have daily symptoms of their allergies.

Which antihistamine is best for swelling? ›

If your symptoms of swelling occur during the day, it's best to take non-drowsy medicines such as cetirizine and loratadine.
...
Other side effects of antihistamines can include:
  • headaches.
  • a dry mouth.
  • a dry nose.

What is the most common antihistamine? ›

Benadryl. The first-generation antihistamine diphenhydramine is the main active ingredient in Benadryl. Benadryl helps relieve runny nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, and nose or throat itching.

Are antihistamines best taken at night? ›

Some antihistamines can cause drowsiness. But others are less likely to cause this side effect. It's recommended to take first-generation antihistamines, like Benadryl (diphenhydramine), at night. This helps limit side effects while you're awake.

Why are antihistamines taken at night? ›

Antihistamines, mainly used to treat symptoms of hay fever or other allergies, can induce drowsiness by working against a chemical produced by the central nervous system (histamine). These medications can be useful in certain situations, such as for treating sleeplessness related to travel.

Can you take antihistamines daily? ›

Experts say, it's usually okay. “Taken in the recommended doses, antihistamines can be taken daily, but patients should make sure they do not interact with their other medications,” says Sandra Lin, MD, professor and vice director of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery at John Hopkins School of Medicine.

How long after taking antihistamines can I drink? ›

It's best to wait to drink alcohol until after an allergy medicine leaves your system. Although everybody processes medications differently, diphenhydramine, loratadine, and cetirizine are likely eliminated from your body about 2 days after your last dose.

Which antihistamine is fast acting? ›

Cetirizine has the fastest onset of action among the newer antihistamines.

What is the best oral antihistamine for itchy skin? ›

A nonprescription oral antihistamine, such as loratadine (Alavert, Claritin, others), cetirizine (Zyrtec Allergy, others) or diphenhydramine (Benadryl Allergy, others), may help relieve itching. Consider whether you might prefer a type that doesn't cause drowsiness. Ask your pharmacist about options.

What is a Type 1 antihistamine? ›

H1 antihistamines, formerly known as H1 receptor antagonists or H1 receptor blockers, are among the most commonly used medications in the world not only for prevention and treatment of symptoms in allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria, in which there is good evidence for their efficacy, but also for ...

Can I take 2 antihistamines? ›

Do not take 2 antihistamines together unless recommended by your doctor.

What are antihistamines made from? ›

The first antihistamines were derivatives of ethylamine; aniline-type compounds, tested later and found to be more potent, were too toxic for clinical use. In 1942 the forerunner of most modern antihistamines (an aniline derivative called Antergan) was discovered.

Does antihistamine help with cold? ›

“Sedating antihistamines such as diphenhydramine [Benadryl] may have a small effect on some cold symptoms in adults,” said Horton. “However, there is little evidence that antihistamines actually help children with colds feel better or recover faster.

What is the best antihistamine for children? ›

Which allergy medicine is best for kids? “Oral medications cetirizine, loratadine and fexofenadine are three common over-the-counter antihistamines commonly used to treat allergies.

Who discovered antihistamines? ›

The Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Daniel Bovet in 1957 for the discovery of antihistamines (anti-H1R) and to Sir James Black in 1988 for the identification of anti-H2R antagonists.

When should you take an antihistamine? ›

Depending on your symptoms, you can take antihistamines: Every day, to help keep daily symptoms under control. Only when you have symptoms. Before being exposed to things that often cause your allergy symptoms, such as a pet or certain plants.

What happens if you take antihistamine every day? ›

Experts say, it's usually okay. “Taken in the recommended doses, antihistamines can be taken daily, but patients should make sure they do not interact with their other medications,” says Sandra Lin, MD, professor and vice director of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery at John Hopkins School of Medicine.

Who should not take antihistamines? ›

Who shouldn't take antihistamines?
  • Glaucoma.
  • Trouble urinating (from an enlarged prostate gland)
  • Breathing problems, such as asthma, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis.
  • Thyroid disease.
  • Heart disease.
  • High blood pressure.
7 Apr 2022

Why do you take antihistamines at night? ›

Antihistamines, mainly used to treat symptoms of hay fever or other allergies, can induce drowsiness by working against a chemical produced by the central nervous system (histamine). These medications can be useful in certain situations, such as for treating sleeplessness related to travel.

How long can you take antihistamine? ›

Yes, most people can take antihistamines every day, if they have daily symptoms of their allergies.

How many antihistamine can you take daily? ›

Dosage and strength

The usual dose for adults is 10mg once a day. Doses are usually lower for people with kidney problems.

What are the side effects of antihistamines? ›

Some of the main side effects of antihistamines include:
  • Dry mouth.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Dizziness.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Restlessness or moodiness (in some children)
  • Trouble peeing or not being able to pee.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Confusion.

Is coffee an antihistamine? ›

The answer is “it's complicated.” Coffee is definitely not an antihistamine, however histamine intolerance in coffee tends to have misinformation on both sides, mainly due to the fact that histamine intolerance is still a relatively unknown ailment.

Which antihistamine helps sleep? ›

Diphenhydramine is known as a drowsy, or sedating, antihistamine as it makes you sleepy. Non-drowsy antihistamines are less likely to have this effect. These include cetirizine, fexofenadine and loratadine.

How long do antihistamines take to work? ›

Antihistamines come in different forms which will also affect how quickly they work. Antihistamine tablets typically start to work within 30 minutes. They may reach their maximum effect in about two hours. Antihistamine nasal sprays work faster, but only affect your nose.

Do antihistamines prevent sleep? ›

Antihistamines can also reduce the quality of sleep and cause side effects, such as: daytime drowsiness. dry mouth. blurred vision.

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