Universal Screening: K–2 Reading - International Dyslexia Association (2022)

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This fact sheet focuses on the importance of universal screening in the primary grades to identify students who are in need of reading intervention.

What are the purposes for different types of assessment?

Assessment can have multiple purposes:

  • Universal Screening- to determine a student’s risk for reading difficulty and the need for intervention
  • Intervention Planning– to make data- based decisions for instruction informed by results of testing
  • Progress Monitoring- to determine if progress is adequate or if more (or different) intervention is required
  • Diagnostic Evaluation- to identify an individual’s learning strengths and weaknesses and likely source of academic problems—and to determine if profile fits the definition of a learning disorder (diagnosis)

Universal Screening: K–2 Reading

Since research has shown that the rapid growth of the brain and its response to instruction in the primary years make the time from birth to age eight a critical period for literacy development (Nevills & Wolfe, 2009), it is essential to identify the instructional needs of struggling students as soon as possible. It is imperative to “catch them before they fall” (Torgesen, 1998). Thus, educators need to understand:

  • The basic principles of universal screening
  • Findings from cognitive science that are the basis of reading and literacy development
  • Potential risk factors (i.e., “red flags”) that indicate potential for common reading problems, including dyslexia

What is a screening?

Screening measures, by definition, are typically brief assessments of a particular skill or ability that is highly predictive of a later outcome. Screening measures are designed to quickly differentiate students into one of two groups: 1) those who require intervention and 2) those who do not. A screening measure needs to focus on specific skills that are highly correlated with broader measures of reading achievement resulting in a highly accurate sorting of students.

Universal screening tools have the following characteristics:

  • Quick and targeted assessments of discrete skills that indicate whether students are making adequate progress in reading achievement
  • Alternate equivalent forms so they can be administered three to four times a year
  • Standardized directions for administration and scoring
  • Have established reliability and validity standards

Why should we screen?

Universal screening results should identify those students who are potentially at risk for reading failure, including those who may have developmental reading disabilities.

Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder. Research has shown that brain plasticity decreases through childhood. It takes four times as long to intervene in fourth grade as it does in late kindergarten (NICHD) because of brain development and because of the increase in content for students to learn as they grow older. Children at risk for reading failure can be reliably identified even before kindergarten. “Deficits in phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, verbal working memory and letter knowledge have been shown to be robust precursors of dyslexia in children as young as age three” (Gaab, 2017). Extensive evidence exists that supports the fact that early intervention is critical. Struggling readers who do not receive earlyintervention tend to fall further behind their peers (Stanovich, 1986).

Psychological and clinical implications of poor reading development can be prevented/minimized if we identify and intervene as early as possible.

Screening Administration

A screening instrument needs to be quickly and easily administered. Screening can occur as early as preschool, but no later than kindergarten and at least three times a year through second grade. It is imperative for screening to occur for all children, not just the ones “at risk” or who have already been determined to have reading failure. Students who are English Language Learners or speak in a different dialect should be included in this assessment.

Since “dyslexia is strongly heritable, occurring in up to 50% of individuals who have a first-degree relative with dyslexia” (Gaab, 2017) initial screening should include family history.

Teacher input on a child’s phonological, linguistic and academic performance is also essential. Teachers can complete screening tools that require their rating of a child’s abilities on a scale to measure risk of reading disability.

What are typical screening measures by grade level?

Although a quick assessment, a screening battery should include key domains, identified as predictors of future reading performance.

Kindergarten

Research indicates that kindergarten screening measures are most successful when they include assessment of the following areas: phonological awareness including phoneme segmentation, blending, onset and rime; rapid automatic naming including letter naming fluency; letter sound association; and phonological memory, including non-word repetition (Catts, et al. 2015; Jenkins & Johnson, 2008).

(Video) SB 237 (Portantino) Univeral Screening for Dyslexia K-2

First Grade

Research indicates first-grade screening measures are most successful when they include assessment of the following areas:

phoneme awareness, specifically phoneme segmentation, blending, and manipulation tasks; letter naming fluency; letter sound association; phonological memory, including nonword repetition; oral vocabulary; and word recognition fluency (i.e., accuracy and rate) (Compton, et al., 2010; Jenkins & Johnson, 2008).

The Center on Response to Interventions Screening Briefs indicate that oral reading fluency could be added in mid first grade.

Second Grade

The Center on Response to Interventions Screening Briefs indicate that in second grade, screening assessment should include word identification, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Word identification assessments should include real and nonsense words.

K–2

The assessment of oral expressive and receptive language (including vocabulary, syntax and comprehension) provides key information in an individual’s reading profile and is predictive of reading outcomes. Unfortunately, there are limited measures at the K-2 level to assess these areas for screening purposes. Without such screening measures, testing for expressive and receptive language is usually done in diagnostic evaluations (Gersten et al., 2008).

There is no one test or assessment tool that measures all reading skills. Different assessments measure different discrete skills. Ideally, multiple measures for screening purposes should be used to ensure that all identified skills have been assessed at the appropriate grade level. When multiple measures are used to screenstudents, the accuracy of identifying those at risk improves significantly.

Some examples of screening assessment tools include (but are not limited to) DIBELS Next, Aimsweb, Predictive Assessment of Reading (PAR), and the Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI).

Intervention Planning

Data from universal screenings should be used to make informed decisions about evidence-based interventions and the progress monitoring that should follow. Interventions should address the needs of the student, as identified by the screening process. Progress Monitoring is then done to determine if progress is adequate or if more (or different) intervention is required.

Progress Monitoring

Progress should be monitored frequently to determine the student’s response to the chosen intervention and rate of improvement. The IES Practice Guide, Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention (RTI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades (Gersten et al., 2008) states that progress can be monitored weekly, but should be monitored no less than once per month.

Summary of suggested progress monitoring measures to use in K–2:

Grade

Measure

Kindergarten

Phonemic awareness measures (especially) measures of phoneme segmentation)

Grade 1

(Video) Universal Literacy & Dyslexia Screener Overview: iReady

Fluent word recognition

Nonword (pseudo word reading)

Oral reading fluency (connected text)

Grade 2

Fluent word recognition

Oral reading fluency

Source: https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/PracticeGuide/rti_reading_pg_021809.pdf

What is a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation and how does it differ from screening?

According to the Dyslexia Assessment Fact Sheet (Lowell, Felton, & Hooks, 2014), a formal clinical evaluation is necessary to determine a diagnosis of dyslexia if the student continues to struggle with literacy skills, despite high-quality instruction using an RTI (Response to Intervention) approach. Areas to be assessed, in depth, by a team of individuals include the following: phonological awareness, phonological or language-based memory, rapid automatic naming, receptive vocabulary, phonics skills, decoding/encoding real and pseudo-words,oral reading fluency, writing at the sentence and paragraph level. Evaluations are completed by trained specialists (e.g., psychologists and neuropsychologists, speech and language pathologists, or educational specialists who have advanced degrees in assessment or education.)

Screening vs. Evaluation

Time Involved

SCREENING

EVALUATION

Brief; Administered individually or in a group

Lengthy; Administered individually

(Video) Role of Universal Screen in Preventing Reading Failure

Characteristics

Criterion Referenced; Curriculum based measures; Arbitrary cut-off points

Norm Referenced; standardized based on standard scores, percentiles, grade/age based equivalencies

Focus

Specific skill areas

Extensive assessment of functioning (cognitive, academic, linguistic, motoric, behavioral)

Administrator

Teachers

Trained specialist (School Psychologist, LDT/C, Speech Language Therapist

Reason

Determine students who are at risk and in need of general education remediation

Identify strengths and weaknesses within profile in order to determine classification for special educations placement and services

Summary

The role of universal screening in primary grades to identify students who are in need of reading intervention has been widely studied. The old saying, “Just wait and they will catch up,” does not hold up to all the empirical data and support for providing early intervention for struggling readers. Educators need to be well versed in the evidence-based methods that identify the risk for reading difficulty, and they need to make good decisions that provideappropriate educational interventions for their students who may be struggling. These decisions need to be informed by data that is gathered as a result of efficient assessments and progress monitoring that are accomplished in a regular and timely manner. It is critical that educators understand the importance of these factors in universal screening and early intervention to ensure that all students have the best opportunities for developing adequate literacy skills.

References

(Video) Universal Literacy and Dyslexia Screener Guide

Catts, H. W., Nielsen, D. C., Bridges, M. S., Liu, Y. S., & Bontempo, D. E. (2015). Early identification of reading disabilities within an RTI framework. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48(3), 281-297.

Center on Response to Intervention (n.d.). Progress monitoring. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from http://www.rti4success.org/essential-components-rti/progress-monitoring

Center on Response to Intervention (n.d.). Screening briefs. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from http://www.rti4success.org/resource/screening-briefs

Center on Response to Intervention (n.d.). Screening tools chart. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from http://www.rti4success.org/resources/tools-charts/screening-tools-chart

Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Bouton, B., Gilbert, J. K., Barquero, L. A., Cho, E., & Crouch, R. C. (2010). Selecting at-risk first-grade readers for early intervention: Eliminating false positives and exploring the promise of a two-stage gated screening process. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 327-340.

Foorman, Barbara R.; Francis, David J.; Shaywitz, Sally E.; Shaywitz, Bennett A.; Fletcher, Jack M. Blachman, Benita A. (Ed). (1997). Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention , (pp. 243-264). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, xxii, 463 pp.

Gaab, N. (2017). It’s a myth that young children cannot be screened for dyslexia. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association. Retrieved from http:// dyslexiaida.org/its-a-myth-that-young-children-cannot-be-screened-for-dyslexia/

Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C. M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L., Linan-Thompson, S., & Tilly, W. D. (2008). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to Intervention and multi-tier intervention for reading in the primary grades. A practice guide. (NCEE 2009-4045). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ publications/practiceguides/

Hosp, M., Hosp, J., & Howell, K. (2007). The ABCs of CBM: A practical guide to curriculum-based measurement. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Jenkins, J. R., & Johnson, E. S. (2008). Universal screening for reading problems: Why and how should we do this? New York, NY: RTI Action Network. Retrieved from http://www.rtinetwork.org/essential/assessment/screening/readingproblems

Lowell, S., Felton, R. & Hook, P. (2014) Basic facts about assessment of dyslexia. Baltimore, MD: The International Dyslexia Association.

Moats, L. C. (2005). Language essentials for teachers of reading and spelling module 8: Assessment for prevention and early intervention (K-3). Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services.

Nevills, P., & Wolfe, P. (2009). Building the reading brain, PreK–3 (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(4), 360-406.

Torgesen, J. K. (1998). Catch them before they fall: Identification and assessment to prevent reading failure in young children. American Educator, 22, 32-39.

(Video) Using Assessment to Drive Literacy Instruction by Dr. Margie Gillis

The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) thanks Dee Rosenberg, M.A., LDT/C, Alison Pankowski, M.Ed., LDT-C, and Barbara Wilson for their assistance in the preparation of this fact sheet.

© Copyright 2019. The International Dyslexia Association (IDA). For copyright information, please click here.

FAQs

At what age can a child be screened for dyslexia? ›

Dyslexia can be identified by a series of straightforward tests tailored to be taken by anybody from the ages of 4 or 5 upwards. However, identifying dyslexia in younger children can be difficult for both parents and teachers, because the signs and symptoms are not always obvious.

What is the dyslexia early screening test? ›

The Dyslexia Early Screening Test - Second Edition (DEST-2) battery contains screening tests of attainment and ability. These determine whether a young child is experiencing difficulty in areas known to be affected in dyslexia.

Can I get my child tested for dyslexia privately? ›

The only way dyslexia can be formally diagnosed is through a Diagnostic Assessment carried out by a certified dyslexia assessor. This assessment will tell you if your child is dyslexic or not.

Does Texas state law mandates dyslexia screening for kindergarten and first grade students? ›

Texas state law (TEC §38.003) requires that public school students be screened and tested as appropriate for dyslexia and related disorders at appropriate times in accordance with a program approved by the SBOE.

What are the signs of dyslexia in a child? ›

Symptoms
  • Late talking.
  • Learning new words slowly.
  • Problems forming words correctly, such as reversing sounds in words or confusing words that sound alike.
  • Problems remembering or naming letters, numbers and colors.
  • Difficulty learning nursery rhymes or playing rhyming games.
6 Aug 2022

Does dyslexia improve with age? ›

While dyslexic children do not merely 'outgrow' their early learning problems, many do overcome them. Thus, the specific symptoms or problems identified early in life may no longer exist in adulthood, and therefore would not be measurable.

What is the cost of a dyslexia test? ›

The cost of an dyslexia assessment can vary between £350 to £375 depending on the tests I use and assessment requirements. Typically the assessment of a child will cost less than an adult (post-16) dyslexia assessment. A top-up dyslexia assessment is available for £250.

Is dyslexia inherited? ›

First, it's clear that there is a hereditary aspect of dyslexia because it runs in families. About 40 percent of siblings of kids with dyslexia also have reading issues. And as many 49 percent of their parents do, too. The exact way genetics leads to dyslexia is still not well understood, however.

What are the four types of dyslexia? ›

Dyslexia can be developmental (genetic) or acquired (resulting from a traumatic brain injury or disease), and there are several types of Dyslexia including phonological dyslexia, rapid naming dyslexia, double deficit dyslexia, surface dyslexia, and visual dyslexia.

Is dyslexia a learning disability in Texas? ›

Federal special education law lists dyslexia as an example of a "specific learning disability," one of a dozen disability categories it covers. Students may be eligible for federally-funded services if they lack reading comprehension skills or the basic ability to read.

How are students tested for dyslexia? ›

Timed tests of real and nonsense word reading provide information as to whether the student has fluency in word identification. Untimed tests of real and nonsense word reading provide information as to whether the student has requisite word-reading accuracy.

Where is dyslexia most common? ›

Dyslexia is found all over the world, and in all socioeconomic and ethnic groups. However, children who attend ineffective schools, often in high poverty areas, are more likely to experience reading failure because of the lack of proper instruction.

How accurate is dyslexia testing? ›

Research Results 2021. The results showed that the QuickScreen test is estimated to have a high overall accuracy rate of 93% together with a strong predictive capacity for dyslexia of 97%.

Can you test a 5 year old for dyslexia? ›

Around age 5 or 6 years, when kids begin learning to read, dyslexia symptoms become more apparent. Children who are at risk of reading disabilities can be identified in kindergarten. There is no standardized test for dyslexia, so your child's doctor will work with you to evaluate their symptoms.

How do dyslexics see words? ›

Most people with dyslexia see words in an inverted form (upside down) or half letters or moving letters. For example, dyslexic people find it difficult to differentiate between letters'd', 'p' or 'q. Some people suffer from significant reading problems due to dyslexia related visual pressure.

What are red flags of dyslexia? ›

These may include: reversing letters or the order of letters (after first grade); spelling phonetically; having accurate beginning and ending sounds but misspelling the word; not using words in writing that they would use in oral language; and disorganized writing, such as a lack of grammar, punctuation, or ...

Is dyslexia part of autism? ›

Although there may be some co-occurrence of autism and dyslexia, these are different disorders and they are not closely linked. Autism is a developmental disorder, while dyslexia is a learning disability, which is a term encompassing various struggles with the learning process.

Is dyslexia Genetic from grandparents? ›

What we do know is that if one of your parents has dyslexia, you have a 40-60% chance of having it too. Your chances of getting it are even higher if more of your relatives have dyslexia. From this you can tell that all your grandchildren do not have the same risk.

Are Dyslexics good at math? ›

We often define dyslexia as an “unexpected difficulty in reading”; however, a dyslexic student may also have difficulty with math facts although they are often able to understand and do higher level math quite well.

Is dyslexia linked to ADHD? ›

ADHD and dyslexia are different brain disorders. But they often overlap. About 3 in 10 people with dyslexia also have ADHD. And if you have ADHD, you're six times more likely than most people to have a mental illness or a learning disorder such as dyslexia.

What is a key indicator of dyslexia? ›

The primary characteristics of dyslexia are as follows: Poor decoding: Difficulty accurately reading (or sounding out) unknown words; Poor fluency: Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading (slow reading rate); Poor spelling: Difficulty with learning to spell, or with spelling words, even common words, accurately.

How can I get a free dyslexia test? ›

Alternatively, a workplace assessment can be provided by several private organisations and the governments' Access to the Work grant scheme.
...
WORK
  1. ACDA.
  2. Helen Arkell Dyslexia Charity – Assessments by Educational Psychologists.
  3. BDA Dyslexia – Who are our assessors?
  4. Independent Dyslexia Consultants – Formal assessment.

Is testing for dyslexia covered by insurance? ›

Since dyslexia is not considered a medical issue, testing for it is not covered by medical insurance. Nor will the school pay for it because in most states, schools are not required by law to test or screen children for dyslexia.

Who can diagnose dyslexia in a child? ›

Answer: In most cases, testing for dyslexia is done by a licensed educational psychologist. Neurologists and other medical professionals may also be qualified to provide a formal diagnosis.

Which parent passes down dyslexia? ›

Both mothers and fathers can pass dyslexia on to their children if either parent has it. There is roughly a 50% – 60% chance of a child developing dyslexia if one of their parents has it.

Which side of the brain do dyslexics use? ›

Ordinary readers use left-brain systems, but dyslexic readers rely more on right brain areas.

What gender is more likely to have dyslexia? ›

Males are diagnosed with dyslexia more frequently than females, even in epidemiological samples. This may be explained by greater variance in males' reading performance.

Does dyslexia worsen with age? ›

Dyslexia symptoms don't 'get worse' with age. That said, the longer children go without support, the more challenging it is for them to overcome their learning difficulties. A key reason for this is that a child's brain plasticity decreases as they mature. This impacts how quickly children adapt to change.

What are dyslexic people good at? ›

In this regard, many dyslexics succeed in fields like engineering, industrial and graphic design, architecture, as well as construction. Great conversationalists: Reading words might not be their strength, but many dyslexics are quite profound in reading people when interacting with them.

What letters do dyslexics mix up? ›

Common mistakes when reading and spelling are mixing up b's and d's, or similar looking words such as 'was' and 'saw', 'how' and 'who'. Letters and numbers can be written back-to-front or upside down. The most common numbers for visual dyslexics to reverse are 9, 5 and 7.

Can you get disability benefits for dyslexia? ›

Since dyslexia doesn't prevent this type of unskilled work, dyslexia alone isn't likely to qualify you for disability benefits. The vast majority of claimants who suffer from dyslexia do not see their lives seriously limited by the disorder.

Is dyslexia a permanent disability? ›

Fact: Dyslexia is a lifelong issue; however yearly monitoring of phonological skills from first through twelfth grade shows that the disability persists into adulthood. Although many dyslexics learn to read accurately they may continue to read slowly and not automatically. Myth: Dyslexia is a "catch-all" term.

Is dyslexia 504 or sped Texas? ›

In most schools, students are given a dyslexia-only evaluation under Section 504 and then put on a one-size-fits-all plan including only two years of intervention and minimal accommodations.

Is dyslexia a special educational need? ›

Special educational needs and disabilities ( SEND ) can affect a child or young person's ability to learn. They can affect their: behaviour or ability to socialise, for example they struggle to make friends. reading and writing, for example because they have dyslexia.

What type of instruction is best for students with dyslexia? ›

Instructional interventions for students with dyslexia should be diagnostic, explicit, systematic, sequential, cumulative, and multisensory. Many individuals with dyslexia benefit from targeted small-group instruction or one-on-one help so that they can move forward at their own pace.

What can you do if your child has dyslexia? ›

Explore these steps to take when you find out your child has dyslexia.
  1. Ask questions. ...
  2. Talk with your child. ...
  3. Know what comes next at school. ...
  4. Discover what helps kids with dyslexia. ...
  5. Connect with other families. ...
  6. Recognize strengths. ...
  7. Share dyslexia success stories.

Can a 4 year old have dyslexia? ›

A child can only be diagnosed with dyslexia through a Diagnostic Assessment but these are usually only carried out from 7 years old.

What is a key indicator of dyslexia? ›

The primary characteristics of dyslexia are as follows: Poor decoding: Difficulty accurately reading (or sounding out) unknown words; Poor fluency: Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading (slow reading rate); Poor spelling: Difficulty with learning to spell, or with spelling words, even common words, accurately.

What letters do dyslexics mix up? ›

Common mistakes when reading and spelling are mixing up b's and d's, or similar looking words such as 'was' and 'saw', 'how' and 'who'. Letters and numbers can be written back-to-front or upside down. The most common numbers for visual dyslexics to reverse are 9, 5 and 7.

How do I know if my 7 year old has dyslexia? ›

Reading
  • Slow reading progress.
  • Finds it difficult to blend letters together.
  • Has difficulty in establishing syllable division or knowing the beginnings and endings of words.
  • Unusual pronunciation of words.
  • No expression in reading, and poor comprehension.
  • Hesitant and laboured reading, especially when reading aloud.

What are red flags of dyslexia? ›

These may include: reversing letters or the order of letters (after first grade); spelling phonetically; having accurate beginning and ending sounds but misspelling the word; not using words in writing that they would use in oral language; and disorganized writing, such as a lack of grammar, punctuation, or ...

Is dyslexia genetic or hereditary? ›

Is dyslexia hereditary? Dyslexia is regarded as a neurobiological condition that is genetic in origin. This means that individuals can inherit this condition from a parent and it affects the performance of the neurological system (specifically, the parts of the brain responsible for learning to read).

How do dyslexics see words? ›

Most people with dyslexia see words in an inverted form (upside down) or half letters or moving letters. For example, dyslexic people find it difficult to differentiate between letters'd', 'p' or 'q. Some people suffer from significant reading problems due to dyslexia related visual pressure.

What are dyslexic students good at? ›

In this regard, many dyslexics succeed in fields like engineering, industrial and graphic design, architecture, as well as construction. Great conversationalists: Reading words might not be their strength, but many dyslexics are quite profound in reading people when interacting with them.

What are the four types of dyslexia? ›

Dyslexia can be developmental (genetic) or acquired (resulting from a traumatic brain injury or disease), and there are several types of Dyslexia including phonological dyslexia, rapid naming dyslexia, double deficit dyslexia, surface dyslexia, and visual dyslexia.

Does dyslexia cause anger issues? ›

Many of the emotional problems caused by dyslexia occur out of frustration with school or social situations. Social scientists have frequently observed that frustration produces anger. This can be clearly seen in many children with dyslexia. Anger is also a common manifestation of anxiety and depression.

What language is easiest for dyslexic to learn? ›

Spanish, Italian and German, on the other hand, are much more transparent languages with clear letter-sound correspondence. This makes reading and spelling easier. German has the additional advantage of having a sound system that is very close to English and the two languages share a large number of words.

How do dyslexics think differently? ›

Some dyslexic people find that their mind races, and they struggle to find the right words to express themselves or to verbally keep up with the speed of their thoughts. Conversely, they often know the answer but need time to retrieve it from their memory.

What is a common error made by children with dyslexia? ›

Consistent Reading and Spelling Errors

Letter reversals (d for b), word reversals (tip for pit), inversions (m for w or u for n), transpositions (felt and left), and substitutions (house and home) are all examples of common reading and spelling errors that children with dyslexia may make.

Is dyslexia part of autism? ›

Although there may be some co-occurrence of autism and dyslexia, these are different disorders and they are not closely linked. Autism is a developmental disorder, while dyslexia is a learning disability, which is a term encompassing various struggles with the learning process.

Does dyslexia affect math? ›

Dyslexia can affect writing and spelling, too. It can also impact math. A learning difference that causes trouble with making sense of numbers and math concepts. Struggling with reading can make kids feel inferior to their peers and can impact self-esteem.

What does dyslexia look like in kindergarten? ›

Language and Literacy Signs of Dyslexia - Indicators

Delayed speech development compared to peers (although this can have many different causes) Confuses some language sounds (e.g. /f/ and /v/ fan and van) Difficulty in pronouncing multisyllabic words. Inability to recall the right word.

Videos

1. Using Literacy Screening Data to Support Students with Reading Difficulties
(SERC - State Education Resource Center of CT)
2. Universal Literacy & Dyslexia Screener Overview: FastBridge
(K12 Academic Standards - ADE)
3. Structured Literacy in Kindergarten: 5 Key Changes That Made All My Students Readers
(International Dyslexia Association Ontario Branch)
4. Universal Screener Guidance
(MDE Literacy)
5. Dyslexia Screening Tools: A Texas Solution
(Pearson Assessments US)
6. How to Use FastBridge for Dyslexia Screening
(Illuminate Education™)

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